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Courage is not simply the mastery of fear through physical strength; it is that quality that springs from spirit, honor and integrity.

"The worth and value of a man is in his heart and his will; there lies his real honor. Valor is the strength, not of legs and arms, but of heart and soul…" Michel de Montaigne, Essays. I. 31.

In The Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle wrote: "We become…brave by doing brave acts." Character traits, virtues and vices are a result of habit. Therefore, Aristotle continues "…by being habituated to despise things that are terrible and to stand our ground against them we become brave, and it is when we have become so that we shall be most able to stand our ground against them."

Examples of courage from literature and history:

  • Don Quixote
  • Pocahantas and John Smith
  • Joan of Arc
  • Harriet Tubman
  • Amelia Earhart
  • The Wizard of Oz
  • 12 Angry Men

Classroom Activities: